The World Bank Group is a family of five international organizations that make global development their mission. They are the largest source of financial assistance for developing countries worldwide. The World Bank was created at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944. Its original purpose was to help rebuild Europe after World War II. But as the world changed, so did the World Bank. It began lending money to developing countries in the 1950s and has since become a truly global institution, with over $1 trillion in assets and more than 10,000 employees from over 160 countries.
World Bank Group
The World Bank Group is an extended family of five international organizations as well as the parent institution that is the World Bank, the collective name that is given to the initial two organizations listed as well as the IBRD along with the IDA:
- The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development(IBRD)
- International Development Association(IDA)
- IFC is the International Finance Corporation(IFC)
- Multilateral Investment Garantie Agency(MIGA)
- The International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes(ICSID)
Harry Dexter White(left) and
John Maynard Keynes, the “founding father” of both the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund(IMF).
The World Bank was created at the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference, along with the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The President of the World Bank is traditionally an American. It is the World Bank and the IMF are both located in Washington, D.C., and they work closely with one another. 
Mount Washington Hotel, where the International Monetary Fund and World Bank were founded
Although many countries participated in the Bretton Woods Conference, the United States and the United Kingdom were the two most dominant in their attendance and led the discussions. 8:52-54 motive behind the establishment of the World Bank was to provide short-term loans to poor countries who were unable to obtain commercial loans. The Bank can also issue loans and request policy changes from the recipients. 
In its initial years, the Bank had a slow start due to two reasons. The first was that it was insufficiently funded, and there were disputes over leadership among and between the U.S. executive director and President of the institution. After it was announced that the Marshall Plan went into effect in 1947, several European countries started receiving assistance from different sources. In the face of this increasing competition and the increasing demand for aid, the World Bank shifted its focus towards non-European allies. Until 1968, the loans were intended for constructing infrastructure, including highways, seaports, and power plants, that could generate enough earnings to allow a borrower nation to pay back the loan. In the year 1960, it was the year that the International Development Association was formed (as opposed to a U.N. fund called SUNFED) and was able to provide soft loans to developing nations.
Before 1974, the rehabilitation and development loans that the World Bank made were relatively tiny. Its staff was aware of the importance of instilling confidence in the institution. The Bank was governed by fiscal conservatism, and the loan applications had to be able to meet the strict requirements. : 56-60
France was the first country to be granted a World Bank loan in 1947. The President of the Bank at the moment, John McCloy, chose France over two other candidates, Poland and Chile. The loan was worth US$250 million, which was half of the amount sought, and was accompanied by strict terms. France was required to create an equilibrating budget and prioritize the repayment of debt to the World Bank over other governments. World Bank staff closely monitored the expenditure of the money to ensure it was the French government was in compliance with the terms. Furthermore, before approval of the loan, the United States State Department told the French government that members who were associated with the Communist Party would first have to be removed. The French government obliged and removed the Communist coalition government, also known as the tripartite. Within hours the loan to France could be approved. 
Between 1974 and 1980, this Bank focused on the needs of the most basic of people living in the developing world. The amount and size of loans given to borrowers increased as loan goals increased from social services to infrastructure and other fields. 
The changes are partly attributable to Robert McNamara, who was elected President in 1968 by Lyndon B. Johnson. [860-63 McNamara exhorted the bank treasurer Eugene Rotberg to seek out new sources of capital that were not part of the banks in northern regions, which were the main sources of financing. Rotberg utilized the bond market to boost the amount of capital that the Bank could access. One result of the period of poverty alleviation loans was the rapid growth of [1212
The World Bank Administrative Tribunal was created in 1980 to resolve disagreements between members of the World Bank Group and its personnel when allegations were made of not observing contracts of employment or conditions of appointment were not respected. 
McNamara was replaced by the U.S. nominee for President Jimmy Carter, Alden W. Clausen, in 1980. [16He Clausen took over many of McNamara’s staff and developed an entirely different mission focus. In 1982, he decided to replace the chief economist of the Bank [1717
In the 1980s, banks focused their lending on servicing Third-World debt and structural adjustment policies designed to improve the economy of developing countries. UNICEF stated in the latter part of the 80s that its structural change programs offered by the World Bank had been responsible for “reduced nutrition, health, and education levels for tens of millions of children across Asia, Latin America, and Africa”. 
In 1989, in reaction to the harsh criticism of various organizations, the Bank started including environmental groups and non-governmental organizations in its lending to counteract the negative impacts of its development policies that had caused the criticism. The Bank also established an implementing agency as per the Montreal Protocols to end the damage caused by ozone depletion to the earth’s atmosphere through the gradual elimination of the majority of ozone-depleting chemicals, and a target year of 2015. Since then, in line with its “Six strategic themes,” the Bank has put a variety of additional policies in place to protect the environment and encourage development. For instance, in the year 1991, it stated that to guard against deforestation, specifically in the Amazon Amazon region, it would not fund any commercial projects for infrastructure or logging that could harm the environment.
In order to increase the number of worldwide public goods to promote global public goods, the World Bank tries to control infectious diseases like malaria, provide vaccines to various regions of the world, and even join the fight. In 2000, the Bank announced a “war against AIDS,” and in 2011, the Bank became a member of the Stop Tuberculosis Partnership. 
Traditionally and based on a tense agreement that exists between the United States and Europe, the President of the World Bank has been selected from a list of candidates nominated by the United States. This is important because this is because the World Bank tends to lend more easily to countries that have a good relationship with those of the United States, not because of direct U.S. influence but because of the personnel who work for the World Bank. In 2012 in the very first instance, 2 non-US residents were chosen for the nomination. 
On March 23, 2012, U.S. President Barack Obama declared that the United States would nominate Jim Yong Kim as the new head of the institution. Jim Yong Kim was elected on April 27, 2012, and was reelected for an additional five-year term on April 27, 2017. Kim announced that he would quit his post on February 1, 2019. 
The World Bank’s Beginnings
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries for capital projects. It was established in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference, where it was agreed that it would be responsible for providing post-war reconstruction finance and development loans. The World Bank’s headquarters are in Washington, D.C., and it has over 10,000 employees in more than 100 offices around the world.
The World Bank Group consists of five institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association (IDA), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). The IBRD is the main lending arm of the World Bank Group and offers loans at market rates of interest. The IDA is a concessional lending arm that provides interest-free loans and grants to low-income countries. The IFC is a member of the World Bank Group and is its private sector lending arm. It offers loan products that are not available from commercial banks. The MIGA guarantees investments against political risks such as war, expropriation, or revolution. The ICSID resolves disputes between investors and states arising out of international investment agreements.
The World Bank has been criticized for its lending practices, which some say lead to indebtedness and dependency on donor countries. It has also been accused of putting too much emphasis on economic growth and not enough on poverty alleviation.
The World Bank Today
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans and grants to countries for the purpose of poverty alleviation and economic development. The World Bank was established in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference, and its headquarters are located in Washington, D.C. The World Bank is a member of the United Nations system, and its President is Jim Yong Kim. As of June 2018, the World Bank Group had 189 member countries.
The World Bank Group consists of five institutions:
-The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD): Provides loans to middle-income countries for infrastructure development, health care, education, etc.
-The International Development Association (IDA): Provides interest-free loans and grants to low-income countries
-The International Finance Corporation (IFC): A private sector arm that invests in businesses in developing countries
-The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA): Assists investors by providing political risk insurance
-The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID): An arbitration panel that settles disputes between foreign investors and host governments
The World Bank is criticized for its lending practices and for being too close to the United States government.
The World Bank’s Vision for the Future
The World Bank Group has a clear vision for the future: a world free of poverty.
The World Bank Group’s overriding goal is to end extreme poverty within a generation and promote shared prosperity in a sustainable way. They are working with governments, civil society organizations, the private sector, and others to build an inclusive global economy that benefits everyone, especially the poorest and most vulnerable people.
In order to achieve this vision, the World Bank Group has five goals:
1) End extreme poverty by decreasing the percentage of people living on $1.90 a day or less to below 3%
2) Boost shared prosperity by fostering the incomes of the bottom 40% of each country
3) Promote sustained, inclusive economic growth, increase employment opportunities, and reduce vulnerabilities to shocks
4) Increase access to financial services for all, including women and young people
5) Build resilience to climate change and environmental shocks and promote sustainable management of natural resources
The World Bank and Poverty Reduction
When the World Bank was created in 1944, its primary mission was to finance the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. But over the past 75 years, the Bank has evolved into a truly global institution with a mandate to fight poverty and improve living standards in developing countries around the world.
Today, the World Bank is one of the leading sources of financing for poverty reduction initiatives in developing countries. The Bank has recently committed more than $50 billion per year to poverty reduction programs. This includes direct support for government efforts to improve social services and infrastructure and targeted financial assistance for poor households and communities.
The World Bank also plays an important role in promoting private sector investment in poverty reduction initiatives. Through its investment arm, the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Bank provides financing and technical assistance to businesses that are looking to invest in low-income countries.
The World Bank’s work on poverty reduction is guided by its mission to end extreme poverty within a generation. The Bank’s goal is to help countries achieve sustained economic growth that creates jobs and improves living standards for all people, especially those who are most vulnerable.
The World Bank’s poverty reduction strategy focuses on three key areas:
1) Investing in people: The World Bank supports government efforts to expand access to quality education, health care, and social protection programs. The Bank also invests in job creation and skills development programs to help people find decent work.
2) Building inclusive and effective institutions: The World Bank works with governments to strengthen the rule of law, fight corruption, and improve the efficiency of public services. The Bank also supports civil society organizations that provide critical services to poor communities.
3) Investing in infrastructure and climate resilience: The World Bank helps countries build the roads, railways, power plants, and other infrastructure needed for economic growth. The Bank also invests in climate resilience programs that help countries adapt to the impacts of climate change. Vulnerable.
The World Bank and Climate Change
The World Bank Group has been a leading international partner in the fight against climate change for over two decades. The World Bank was one of the first multilateral organizations to recognize the threat of climate change and the need for action. In 1997, the World Bank released its first report on climate change, which warned that human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases could lead to catastrophic temperature rises.
In response to this report, and in line with its mission to end poverty, the World Bank committed itself to fight climate change. Since then, the World Bank Group has invested over $200 billion in low-carbon and climate-resilient development projects. These investments have gone towards renewable energy, green buildings, forestry management, and disaster risk reduction initiatives.
The World Bank Group has also been a key player in global negotiations on climate change. In 2009, the World Bank helped launch the Climate Investment Funds (CIF), a set of multilateral funds that are providing $10 billion dollars to help developing countries transition to low-carbon economies. The World Bank is also a member of the Green Climate Fund (GCF), which was created at the COP21 conference in 2015 and is tasked with channelling $100 billion per year by 2020 into mitigation and adaptation efforts around the world.
The World Bank Group’s commitment to fighting climate change is unwavering. With over two decades of experience in this field, the World Bank Group is well-positioned to continue playing a leading role in the global effort to combat climate change.
The World Bank has come a long way since its humble beginnings in 1944. From its early days as a small team of committed individuals working to meet the needs of post-World War II Europe to its present status as one of the world’s most important development organizations, the World Bank has always strived to be a truly global institution. As it looks to the future, the World Bank will continue to play a vital role in supporting developing countries as they work to improve the lives of their citizens.
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