The Federal Reserve System (FRS) is the central bank of the United States. Sometimes, it is simply referred to as the Fed. It is the most effective financial institution around the globe. It was established to supply the nation with an efficient, safe, and secure financial and monetary system. The Fed has a board that comprises seven members. Twelve Federal Reserve banks have individual presidents, each representing a distinct district.
Understanding the Federal Reserve System (FRS)
Central banks are financial institutions with privileged control over the distribution and production of money and credit to the nation or collection of countries. In the modern world, centrally located banks are generally accountable for making monetary policies and supervising their member banks. The Fed is comprised of twelve Regional Federal Reserve Banks that are each accountable for a distinct geographical region of the U.S.1 The Fed was established under the Federal Reserve Act, which President Woodrow Wilson signed on December 23, 1913, in reaction to the financial turmoil that occurred in 1907.23 Prior to this it was created, there was no central bank in the U.S. had been the sole major financial power that did not have a central bank. The creation of the Fed was caused by the numerous financial crises which afflicted the U.S.
The economy during the last century caused severe economic turmoil caused by bank failures and bankruptcy of businesses. The crisis of 1907 led to demands for an institution to keep out disruptions and panics.
The Fed has the power to make decisions to maintain financial stability, and it is the main regulator for banks that are part of the Federal Reserve System. It serves as a lender’s last resort for institutions of the system that do not have any other option to take loans. It is often referred to simply as the Fed and has the responsibility of ensuring the financial stability of the financial system. It also serves as the primary oversight of the nation’s financial institutions.
The twelve Regional Federal Banks are based in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Richmond, Atlanta, Chicago, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Kansas City, Dallas, and San Francisco.1 Fed System Banks.
A Brief History of Central Banks
Timeline of central banking in the United StatesDatesSystem1782-1791
- Central banks throughout the United States, 1791-1913
The first attempt to create the creation of a currency for all nations was in the American Revolutionary War. In 1775 the Continental Congress and the states began making paper currency and calling those notes “Continentals.” The Continentals were only backed by tax revenues that would be generated in the future as well as to finance the Revolutionary War. In addition to British counterfeiting, the overprinting process led to its value as a Continental decrease rapidly. This incident with paper currency caused the United States to strip the authority to create Bills of Credit (paper money) from an amendment to the newly-created Constitution on August 16, 1787.
In 1791, the federal government gave an institution called the First Bank of the United States and operated a charter in the capacity of the central bank for the U.S. central bank until 1811. In 1811, the First Bank of the United States ended under .
- First Central Bank, 1791 and Second Central Bank, 1816
One of the first U.S. institutions with central bank responsibility is The First Bank of the United States, founded by Congress and ratified by President George Washington on February 25, 1791, following the suggestion from Alexander Hamilton. This was done despite massive resistance by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and many others. The charter was valid for twenty years and was cancelled in 1811 under the presidency of President Madison, who was President when Congress declined to renew the charter. 
In 1816 however, Madison revived the institution as The Second Bank of the United States. A few years later, the early renewal of the bank’s charter was the most important issue in the election of President Andrew Jackson. When Jackson, who opposed Central Bank, won reelection in the presidential election, he took the funds of government out of the bank. Jackson is the sole President to fully pay off the national debt. The bank’s charter wasn’t renewed until 1836. From 1837 until 1862, in the period of [139years [139
- Creation of Third Central Bank, 1907-1913
The primary motivation behind the creation of the third central bank system was the Panic of 1907, which triggered an increased desire among lawmakers, economists, bankers, and legislators to overhaul the system of monetary exchange. Between the end of the first period of the 19th century as well as the turn into the century of the twentieth century, it was noted that the United States economy went through several cycles of
- Federal Reserve Act, 1913
The bipartisan National Monetary Commission chairman was a financial expert and Senate Republican chairman Nelson Aldrich. Aldrich created two commissions: one to analyze the American money system in depth and the second, headed by Aldrich himself, to research how the European central banks and write about the European central banking systems and report on them. 
In early November of 1910, Aldrich sat down with five well-known New York banking community representatives to create a central banking bill. Paul Warburg, an attendee of the gathering and longtime advocate for central banks in the U.S., later wrote that Aldrich was “bewildered at all that he had absorbed abroad, and he was faced with the difficult task of writing a highly technical bill while being harassed by the daily grind of his parliamentary duties.” After 10 days of discussion and debate, the bill, later to be known by the name “Aldrich Plan,” was approved. It included several essential elements: a central bank with a Washington-based headquarter and 15 branches spread across the U.S. in geographically strategic areas and a common flexible currency built on commercial paper and gold. Aldrich believed that a central bank system without political influence was the best option. However, he believed that Warburg that a plan that had no control over the public was not feasible politically. 
The bill was met with a lot of opposition from lawmakers. Some critics accused Aldrich of bias due to his close ties with wealthy bankers, such as J. P. Morgan and John D. Rockefeller Jr., the son of Aldrich. A majority of Republicans supported Aldrich’s plan. Aldrich Plan did not have enough support in Congress to be approved because western states and the rural areas considered it to favour those who belonged to the “eastern establishment.” 
The first Aldrich Plan was dealt a fatal blow in 1912 when Democrats took control of both the White House and Congress. Nonetheless, President 
- Federal Reserve era, 1913-present
Important laws that impact Federal Reserve have been: Key laws affecting Federal Reserve have been:
- Federal Reserve Act, 1913
- Glass-Steagall Act, 1933
- Banking Act of 1935
- Employment Act of 1946
- Federal Reserve-Treasury Department Accord of 1951
- Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 and its amendments in
- Federal Reserve Reform Act of 1977
- International Banking Act of 1978
- Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act(1978)
- Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act(1980)
- Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989
- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991
- Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act(1999)
- Financial Services Regulatory Relief Act(2006)
- Emergency Economic Stabilization Act(2008)
- Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act(2010)
The Federal Reserve System’s Mandate and Duties
The goals of monetary policy for the Federal Reserve are twofold: to create economic conditions that result in steady prices and sustainable employment.6 The Federal Reserve’s responsibilities are further classified into four broad areas:
Controlling and supervising banks to ensure the security and security of banks and financial institutions in the U.S. banking and financial system and to protect the rights of consumers to credit.
Offering financial services, such as an essential role in the operation of the national payment system and depository institutions, the U.S. government, and foreign official institutions.
The Federal Reserve System’s Independence
Central bank independence concerns the issue of whether supervisors of monetary policy should be separated from the sphere of government. The people who support independence are aware of the power of political parties in promoting monetary policy that could favour reelection in the near future but can result in lasting economic harm later on. The critics argue that central banks and the government should be closely coordinated in their economic policy, and central banks need to be supervised by a regulator.
It is also believed that the Fed is also believed as independent since its decisions are not required to be approved either by the President or another official of the government. However, it remains subject to oversight by Congress and must operate within the guidelines of the government’s economic as well as fiscal policy. Fears about the growth of Federal Reserve balance sheet bailouts for companies like American International Group ( AIG ) have led to demands for more accountability and transparency. Accountability.9 Recent calls from Washington to investigate and audit the Federal Reserve could potentially undermine the independence of this U.S. central bank.
The Fed is believed to be independent since its decisions are not required to be approved.
What’s the job of what does the Fed Chair?
Very few people in Washington are able to enjoy the autonomy and power of the Chair of the Federal Reserve. They serve as the representative of central banks, negotiate directly with the President and Congress, and decide the agenda for the board and FOMC meetings. Investors and analysts rely on the chairman’s every word, and markets react instantly to any indications of the interest rate policy.
Budget, Debt, and Deficits
The President chooses the chair. The Fed, which manages its own budget, is largely unaffected by the decisions of Congress. After confirmation as a chair, it is a Fed chair. It is largely independent of the White House; there is no established procedure to force a president out of the chair, and it’s legally uncertain if they can remove them in any way.
The most recent Fed chairs are:
- Paul Volcker, 1979-1987. Nominated by President Jimmy Carter, Volcker, prior to his time as the director of the New York Fed, took over during a period of high inflation, double-digit growth and slow growth. This is referred to by the term “stagflation.” To fight inflation, he slowed the flow of money available in the economy and pushed interest rates to the highest levels in the history of the world, which topped 20 percent. The immediate effect was high unemployment and a recession. Many economists believe that”shock therapy “shock therapy” set the foundation for the nation’s prosperity in the 1980s. Ronald Reagan was President. Ronald Reagan replaced Volcker in 1987 following disagreements over the rise of U.S. debt, high-interest rates, and financial regulations.
- Alan Greenspan, 1987-2006. Reagan appointed Greenspan as the economist, an ex-White House advisor who was later to serve for five terms in the position of Fed chairman under 4 presidents. A well-known in the field of inflation and a skeptic of government regulations, Greenspan was frequently acknowledged as having led the U.S. economy through its longest expansion in the 1990s. After this year’s financial turmoil, however, many experts condemned him for failing to control risky financial instruments and permitting a housing bubble to grow.
- Ben Bernanke, 2006-2014. Nominated by President George W. Bush, Bernanke’s two-term spans the most difficult years of the 2008 financial crisis along with its aftermath, dubbed the Great Recession. His aggressive response was to cut the interest rate to zero, assisting financial institutions at risk of collapse and pumping trillions of dollars into the financial markets to boost the liquidity of lending. President Barack Obama reappointed Bernanke to another term and credited him with preventing a total economic collapse.
- Janet Yellen, 2014-2018. Following the announcement that Bernanke declared his resignation in 2013, Obama picked Yellen, an economist trained at Yale, as well as the very first female in the history of the U.S. central bank. Before her tenure as the chair, Yellen warned early regarding the crisis in housing and called for a more aggressive monetary policy in order to reduce unemployment. In her tenure, when she watched as the United States saw a recovery in the employment market, Yellen oversaw the first increase in interest rates over the course of more than 10 years.
- Jerome Powell, 2018-Present. The presidents who have changed their positions almost always appointed the current Fed chair for another period, depending on the party. However, after Yellen’s term ended in February 2018, Trump replaced her with Powell, who was an investor, businessman, and the current Fed governor. While Trump was critical of Yellen’s “easy money” policies during his campaign for President in 2016, Powell initially followed her model of gradually increasing interest rates. However, as with Trump, Powell has been more skeptical of some of the Fed’s policies, specifically on smaller banks which have been subject to greater scrutiny following the economic crisis. However, Trump repeatedly threatened to dismiss Powell and claimed that he didn’t do enough to boost the economy. President Joe Biden reappointed Powell in 2022. Powell was faced with rising inflation, raising rates to their highest in 15 years.
Who Owns the Federal Reserve?
No one controls the Federal Reserve System. It was established in 1913 under legislation known as the Federal Reserve Act to serve as the central bank for the nation. Its Board of Governors is an agency of the federal government. It is accountable directly to Congress.14
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